Fibronectin upregulates gelatinase B (MMP-9) and induces coordinated expression of gelatinase A (MMP-2) and its activator MT1-MMP (MMP-14) by human T lymphocyte cell lines. A process repressed through RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathways.. J Esparza; C Vilardell; J Calvo; M Juan; J Vives; A Urbano-Márquez; J Yagüe; M C Cid (1999) Blood display abstract
T-lymphocyte migration into tissues requires focal degradation of the basement membrane. In this study, we show that transient adherence to fibronectin induces the production of activated forms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, as well as downregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) by T-cell lines. MMP-2 activation was likely achieved by inducing a coordinated expression of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-14), a major activator of MMP-2. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against alpha4, alpha5, and alphav integrins strongly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production induced by fibronectin. Disrupting actin cytoskeleton organization by cytochalasin D strongly enhanced fibronectin-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Inhibiting Src tyrosine kinases with herbimycin A reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production with no effect on cell attachment. By contrast, G-protein inhibition by pertussis toxin, or transfection with a dominant negative mutant of Ha-Ras strongly increased fibronectin-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9. Inhibition of PI3 kinase, MAPkinase (MEK1), or p38 MAPkinase by wortmannin, PD 98059, or SB 202190, respectively, strongly promoted fibronectin-induced MMP2 and MMP-9. Cells at high density lost their ability to synthesize MMP-2 and MMP-9 in response to fibronectin and MMP expression was restored by transfection with a dominant-negative mutant of Ha-Ras or by treatment with wortmannin, PD 98059, or SB 202190. Our findings suggest that adhesion to fibronectin transduces both stimulatory (through Src-type tyrosin kinases) and inhibitory signals (through Ras/MAPKinase signaling pathways) for MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression by T lymphocytes and that their relative predominance is regulated by additional stimuli related to cell adhesion, motility, and growth.