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Drug-Target Interaction

Drug

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PubChem ID:60750
Structure:
Synonyms:
103882-84-4
122111-03-9
122111-03-9 (HYDROCHLORIDE)
2',2'-DiF-dC
2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine
2'-Deoxy-.beta.-D-2',2'-difluorocytidine
2'-Deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine
2(1H)-Pyrimidinone,
2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-amino-1-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-
2(1H)-Pyrimidinone, 4-amino-1-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-erythropentofuranosyl)- (9CI)
4-Amino-1-[(2R,4R,5R)-3,3-difluoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyrimidin-2-one
4-Amino-1-[3,3-difluoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-1H-pyrimidin-2-one
95058-81-4
AIDS-001419
AIDS001419
C07650
CCRIS 8984
CHEBI:175901
Cytidine, 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-
Cytidine, 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-2'-Deoxy-.beta.-D-2',2'-difluorocytidine
Cytosine, 1-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-
D02368
DB00441
DDFC
dFdC
DFdCyd
Gamcitabine
Gemcitabina [INN-Spanish]
Gemcitabine
Gemcitabine (USAN/INN)
Gemcitabine HCl
Gemcitabine stereoisomer
Gemcitabine [USAN:BAN:INN]
Gemcitabinum [INN-Latin]
Gemzar
Gemzar (hydrochloride)
GEO
Inno-D07001
LS-59139
LY 188011
LY-188011
LY188011
NCGC00168784-01
NChemBio.2007.10-comp25
nchembio.90-comp2
TL8005979
ZINC18279854
ATC-Codes:

Target

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Uniprot ID:ICE_DROME
Synonyms:
Caspase
drICE
EC-Numbers:3.4.22.-
Organism:Drosophila melanogaster
Fruit fly
PDB IDs:-

Binding Affinities:

Ki: Kd:Ic 50:Ec50/Ic50:
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References:

15073106
Inhibition of SRC tyrosine kinase impairs inherent and acquired gemcitabine resistance in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.. Mark S Duxbury; Hiromichi Ito; Michael J Zinner; Stanley W Ashley; Edward E Whang (2004) Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research display abstract
PURPOSE: We tested the hypotheses that Src tyrosine kinase overactivity represents a chemoresistance mechanism and that Src inhibition may enhance gemcitabine cytotoxicity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells PANC1, MiaPaCa2, Capan2, BxPC3, and PANC1(GemRes), a stably gemcitabine-resistant subline of PANC1, were exposed to combinations of gemcitabine and Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2). Src expression, phosphorylation (Tyr-416), and activity were analyzed by immunoblotting and in vitro kinase assay. Expression of the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2), a putative chemoresistance enzyme, was quantified by Northern and Western blot. Cellular proliferation was quantified by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was characterized by YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide staining, fluorometric caspase profiling, and caspase inhibition (Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone). The effects of constitutively active and dominant negative Src were determined. The therapeutic efficacy of PP2 in combination with gemcitabine was tested in nude mice orthotopically xenografted with PANC1(GemRes). RESULTS: Greater gemcitabine resistance was associated with higher Src phosphorylation and activity, both of which were higher in PANC1(GemRes), relative to PANC1; total Src levels were alike. PANC1(GemRes) overexpressed RRM2. PP2 enhanced inherent gemcitabine chemosensitivity and attenuated gemcitabine resistance in PANC1(GemRes). Constitutively active Src increased gemcitabine chemoresistance; dominant negative Src impaired gemcitabine chemoresistance. PP2 augmented gemcitabine-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, suppressed RRM2 expression, and decreased activity of the RRM2-regulating transcription factor E2F1 in PANC1(GemRes). PP2 and gemcitabine in combination substantially decreased tumor growth and inhibited metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Increased Src tyrosine kinase activity represents a potential chemoresistance mechanism and a promising therapeutic target warranting further investigation in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic adenocarcinoma.