Trimethadione metabolism, a useful indicator for assessing hepatic drug-oxidizing capacity.. M Nakamura; E Tanaka; S Misawa; T Shimada; S Imaoka; Y Funae (1994) Biochemical pharmacology display abstract
The metabolism of trimethadione (TMO), a useful indicator of hepatic drug-oxidizing capacity in rats and humans, was studied using 14 different forms of rat cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A1, 2A2, 2B1, 2B2, 2C6, 2C7, 2C11, 2C12, 2C13, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A2) and three forms of human cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2, 2C and 3A4). TMO N-demethylation was increased by treating rats with phenobarbital. CYP2C11 and 2B1 had high TMO N-demethylase activity, but 1A1 and 1A2 had low activity. Antibodies raised to CYP2C11 and 2B1/2 inhibited TMO N-demethylation in hepatic microsomes of untreated and phenobarbital-treated rats, respectively. In a reconstituted system, human CYP3A4 and 2C produced efficiently dimethadione (DMO), but CYP1A2 did not catalyse TMO N-demethylation. Antibodies raised to CYP3A2 and 2C11 inhibited TMO N-demethylation in human hepatic microsomes. These results indicated that the N-demethylation of TMO is catalysed mainly by CYP2C11 and 2B1 in rat hepatic microsomes, and that human CYP3A4 and an unspecified isoform of the 2C subfamilies contribute to TMO N-demethylation in human liver.
Trimethadione metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450: evidence for the involvement of CYP2E1.. N Kurata; Y Nishimura; M Iwase; N E Fischer; B K Tang; T Inaba; H Yasuhara (1998) Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems display abstract
1. Caucasian liver samples were used in this study. N-demethylation of trimethadione (TMO) to dimethadione (DMO) was monitored in the presence of chemical inhibitors of CYPs, such as fluconazole, quinidine, dimethyl-nitrosamine, acetaminophen, phenacetin, chlorzoxazone and mephenytoin. Trimethadione N-demethylation was selectively inhibited by dimethylnitrosamine and chlorzoxazone (> 50%) and weakly inhibited by tolbutamide (12%) and fluconazole (22%), whereas other inhibitors showed no effect. This result suggested that TMO metabolism to DMO is mainly mediated by CYP2E1 and marginally by CYP2C and CYP3A4. 2. Fifteen human livers were screened and interindividual variability of TMO N-demethylation activity was 3-fold. Chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation activity was also measured and both activities were significantly correlated (r=0.735, p < 0.01). 3. DMO production by human cDNA expressed CYP enzymes was observed mainly for CYP2E1 (10.8 nmol/tube), marginally for CYP2C8 (0.22 nmol/tube) and not detectable for other CYP enzymes. 4. These results indicate that TMO metabolism is primarily catalysed by CYP2E1 and that trimethadione would be a suitable selective probe drug for the estimation of human CYP2E1 activity in vivo.