|show drug details|
|Itraconazole & Bovine Lactoferrin|
|Itraconazole & Nyotran|
|Itraconazole & Nyotran(Liposomal Nystatin)|
|show target details|
|Cytochrome P450 3A3|
|Cytochrome P450 3A4|
|PDB IDs:||1TQN 1W0E 1W0F 1W0G 2J0D 2V0M |
|Ki: ||Kd:||Ic 50:||Ec50/Ic50:|
The cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor itraconazole markedly increases the plasma concentrations of dexamethasone and enhances its adrenal-suppressant effect.. T Varis; K T Kivist÷; J T Backman; P J Neuvonen (2000) Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics display abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible interaction of itraconazole with orally and intravenously administered dexamethasone. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with four phases, eight healthy subjects took either 200 mg itraconazole (in two phases) or placebo (in two phases) orally once daily for 4 days. On day 4 each subject received an oral dose of 4.5 mg dexamethasone or an intravenous dose of 5.0 mg dexamethasone sodium phosphate during both itraconazole and placebo phases. Plasma dexamethasone and cortisol concentrations were determined by HPLC up to 71 hours, itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole up to 23 hours. RESULTS: Itraconazole decreased the systemic clearance of intravenously administered dexamethasone by 68% (P < .001), increased the total area under the plasma dexamethasone concentration-time curve [AUC(0-infinity)] 3.3-fold (P < .001), and prolonged the elimination half-life of dexamethasone 3.2-fold (P < .001). The AUC(0-infinity) of oral dexamethasone was increased 3.7-fold (P < .001), the peak plasma concentration 1.7-fold (P < .001), and the elimination half-life 2.8-fold (P < .001) by itraconazole. The morning plasma cortisol concentrations measured 47 and 71 hours after administration of dexamethasone were substantially lower after exposure to itraconazole than to placebo (P < .001). Accordingly, the adrenal-suppressant effect of dexamethasone was greatly enhanced during the itraconazole phases. CONCLUSIONS: Itraconazole markedly increases the systemic exposure to and effects of dexamethasone. A careful follow-up is recommended when itraconazole or other potent inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 3A4 are added to the drug regimen of patients receiving dexamethasone.
Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of inhaled lidocaine.. Mika H Isohanni; Pertti J Neuvonen; Klaus T Olkkola (2004) Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology display abstract
Lidocaine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 and 1A2 enzymes (CYP3A4 and CYP1A2) in vitro. However, their relative contribution to the elimination of lidocaine depends on lidocaine concentration. We have studied the effect of a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, itraconazole, on the pharmacokinetics of inhaled lidocaine in ten healthy volunteers using a randomized, two-phase cross-over study design. The interval between the phases was four weeks. The subjects were given orally itraconazole (200 mg once a day) or placebo for four days. On day 4, each subject inhaled a single dose of 1.5 mg/kg of lidocaine by nebulizer. Plasma samples were collected until 10 hr and the concentrations of lidocaine and its major metabolite monoethylglycinexylidide were measured by gas chromatography. The areas under the lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide concentration time curves were similar during both phases. No statistically significant differences were observed in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters; peak concentrations, concentration peak times or elimination half-lives of lidocaine or monoethylglycinexylidide. The clinical implication of this study is that no lidocaine dosage adjustments are necessary if it is used to prepare the airway prior to endoscopic procedures or intubation in patients using itraconazole or other inhibitors of CYP3A4.
Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of gefitinib with rifampicin, itraconazole and metoprolol.. Helen C Swaisland; Malcolm Ranson; Robert P Smith; Joanna Leadbetter; Alison Laight; David McKillop; Martin J Wild (2005) Clinical pharmacokinetics display abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gefitinib (IRESSA, ZD1839), an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved in several countries for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Preclinical studies were conducted to determine the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the metabolism of gefitinib and to evaluate the potential of gefitinib to cause drug interactions through inhibition of CYP isoenzymes. Based on these findings, three clinical studies were carried out to investigate pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo with gefitinib. METHODS: In preclinical studies radiolabelled gefitinib was incubated with: (i) hepatic microsomal protein in the presence of selective CYP inhibitors; and (ii) expressed CYP enzymes. Human hepatic microsomal protein was incubated with selective CYP substrates in the presence of gefitinib. Clinical studies were all phase I, open-label, single-centre studies; two had a randomised, two-way crossover design and the third was nonrandomised. The first and second studies investigated the pharmacokinetics of gefitinib in the presence of a potent CYP3A4 inducer (rifampicin [rifampin]) or inhibitor (itraconazole) in healthy male volunteers. The third study investigated the effects that gefitinib had on the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol, a CYP2D6 substrate, in patients with solid tumours. RESULTS: The results of preclinical studies demonstrated that CYP3A4 is involved in the metabolism of gefitinib and that gefitinib is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 activity. In clinical studies when gefitinib was administered in the presence of rifampicin, geometric mean (gmean) maximum concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were reduced by 65% and 83%, respectively; these changes were statistically significant. When gefitinib was administered in the presence of itraconazole, gmean AUC increased by 78% and 61% at gefitinib doses of 250 and 500 mg, respectively; these changes also being statistically significant. Coadministration of metoprolol with gefitinib resulted in a 35% increase in the metoprolol area under plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration; this change was not statistically significant. There was no apparent change in the safety profile of gefitinib as a result of coadministration with other agents. CONCLUSIONS: Although CYP3A4 inducers may reduce exposure to gefitinib, further work is required to define any resultant effect on the efficacy of gefitinib. Exposure to gefitinib is increased by coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors, but since gefitinib is known to have a good tolerability profile, a dosage reduction is not recommended. Gefitinib is unlikely to exert a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are dependent on CYP2D6-mediated metabolism for their clearance, but the potential to increase plasma concentrations should be considered if gefitinib is coadministered with CYP2D6 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index or are individually dose titrated.
Effects of itraconazole and tandospirone on the pharmacokinetics of perospirone.. Takuya Masui; Ichiro Kusumi; Yoshito Takahashi; Tsukasa Koyama (2006) Therapeutic drug monitoring display abstract
Perospirone is an atypical antipsychotic agent originated and clinically used in Japan. Based on an in vitro study, it is reported that perospirone is mainly metabolized to ID-15036 by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of itraconazole, which is a specific inhibitor of CYP3A4, or tandospirone, which is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and is expected to competitively inhibit the activity of this enzyme, on single oral dose pharmacokinetics of perospirone. After pretreatment with 200 mg daily of itraconazole or 10 mg daily of tandospirone for 5 days, 9 healthy male subjects received 8 mg of perospirone. Plasma concentrations of perospirone and ID-15036 up to 10 hours after perospirone dosing were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The metabolism of perospirone was significantly inhibited by treatment with itraconazole but not by tandospirone. The present study suggests that CYP3A4 is significantly involved in metabolism of perospirone in humans.
Inhibition of terfenadine metabolism in vitro by azole antifungal agents and by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: relation to pharmacokinetic interactions in vivo.. L L von Moltke; D J Greenblatt; S X Duan; J S Harmatz; C E Wright; R I Shader (1996) Journal of clinical psychopharmacology display abstract
Biotransformation of the H-1 antagonist terfenadine to its desalkyl and hydroxy metabolites was studied in vitro using microsomal preparations of human liver. These metabolic reactions are presumed to be mediated by Cytochrome P450-3A isoforms. The azole antifungal agent ketoconazole was a highly potent inhibitor of both reactions, having mean inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.037 and 0.34 microM for desalkyl- and hydroxy-terfenadine formation, respectively. Itraconazole also was a potent inhibitor, with Ki values of 0.28 and 2.05 microM, respectively. Fluconazole, on the other hand, was a weak inhibitor. Six selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants tested in this system were at least 20 times less potent inhibitors of terfenadine metabolism than was ketoconazole. An in vitro-in vivo scaling model used in vitro Ki values, typical clinically relevant plasma concentrations of inhibitors, and presumed liver:plasma partition ratios to predict the degree of terfenadine clearance impairment during coadministration of terfenadine with these inhibitors in humans. The model predicted a large and potentially hazardous impairment of terfenadine clearance by ketoconazole and, to a slightly lesser extent, by itraconazole. However, fluconazole and the six selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) at usual clinical doses were not predicted to impair terfenadine clearance to a degree that would be of clinical importance. Caution is nonetheless warranted with the coadministration of SSRIs and terfenadine when high doses of SSRIs (particularly fluoxetine) are administered. Also, some individuals may be unusually susceptible to metabolic inhibition for a variety of reasons.