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|2,2-Dimethylbutanoic acid (1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-[2-[(2R,4R)-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl]ethyl]-1-naphthalenyl ester|
|2,2-Dimethylbutyric acid, 8-ester with (4R,6R)-6-(2-((1S,2S,6R,8S,8aR)-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-8-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-1-naphthyl)ethyl)tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one|
|Butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, (1S,3R,7S,8S,*aR)-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-(2-((2R,4R)-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)ethyl)-1-naphthalenyl ester|
|Butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, (1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-(2-((2R,4R)-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)ethyl)-1-naphthalenyl ester|
|Butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, (1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-[2-[(2R,4R)-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl]ethyl]-1-naphthalenyl ester|
|Butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, 1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-(2-(tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)ethyl)-1-naphthalenyl ester, (1S-(1alpha,3alpha,7beta,8beta(2S*,4S*),8abeta))-|
|butanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-,1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,7-dimethyl-8-[2-(tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)-ethyl]-1-naphthalenyl ester, [1S-[1 alpha,3 alpha,7 beta,8 beta(2S*,4S*),-8a beta|
|upper respiratory infection||0.026157895|
|toxic epidermal necrolysis||0.0010|
|stevens - johnson syndrome||0.00035|
|elevated alkaline phosphatase||0.00033|
|chronic active hepatitis||0|
|Ki: ||Kd:||Ic 50:||Ec50/Ic50:|
Simvastatin reduces reperfusion injury by modulating nitric oxide synthase expression: an ex vivo study in isolated working rat hearts.. P Di Napoli; A Antonio Taccardi; A Grilli; R Spina; M Felaco; A Barsotti; R De Caterina (2001) Cardiovascular research display abstract
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis of beneficial effects of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase inhibitor simvastatin in a model of ischemia-reperfusion, and investigated potential mechanisms. METHODS: Isolated working rat hearts were subjected to 15 min global ischemia and 22-180 min reperfusion in the presence or absence of simvastatin (10-100 microM). We evaluated creatinephosphokinase and nitrite levels in coronary effluent, heart weight changes, microvascular permeability (extravasation of fluoresceine-labeled albumin), ultrastructural alterations, and the expression of endothelial (e) and inducible (i) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (by reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting) in the presence or absence of the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin-D. RESULTS: Simvastatin (25 microM) significantly reduced myocardial damage and vascular hyperpermeability, concomitant with a reduction in endothelial and cardiomyocyte lesions. Protection became less evident at 50 microM and reverted to increased damage at 100 microM. At 25 microM, simvastatin significantly increased eNOS mRNA and protein compared with untreated hearts, probably due to a post-transcriptional regulation since unaltered by animal pretreatment with actinomycin D. Simvastatin also significantly decreased iNOS mRNA and protein, as well as nitrite production after ischemia-reperfusion. The addition of the NOS inhibitor N(pi)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 30 microM) to 25 microM simvastatin-treated hearts significantly reduced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: In this model, in the absence of perfusing granulocytes, the acute administration of a pharmacologically relevant simvastatin concentration reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury and prevents coronary endothelial cell and cardiomyocyte damage by cholesterol-independent, NO-dependent mechanisms.
Simvastatin acutely reduces myocardial reperfusion injury in vivo by activating the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.. Sebastian Wolfrum; Andreas Dendorfer; Morten Schutt; Britta Weidtmann; Angelika Heep; Klaus Tempel; Harald H Klein; Peter Dominiak; Gert Richardt (2004) Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology display abstract
Long-term pretreatment with statins reduces myocardial injury after acute ischemia and reperfusion by increasing the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). We hypothesized that statins may act rapidly enough to protect the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury when given right at the beginning of the reperfusion period and tried to delineate the role of PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway in early eNOS activation. Activated simvastatin was given intravenously 3 minutes before starting the reperfusion after temporary coronary artery occlusion (CAO) in anaesthetized rats. Simvastatin significantly increased myocardial PI 3-kinase activity, AktSer473, and eNOSSer1177 phosphorylation and reduced infarct size by 42%. Infarct size reduction as well as activation of PI 3-kinase/Akt/eNOS pathway were not observed in rats co-treated with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Contribution of eNOS was further delineated using the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, which could completely block cardioprotection by the statin. In summary, simvastatin acutely reduces the extent of myocardial necrosis in normocholesterolemic rats in an NO- dependent manner by activating the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This is the first study demonstrating short-term cardioprotective effects of simvastatin in an in vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion.
High doses of simvastatin upregulate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression in the rat prefrontal cortex: possible involvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.. Qing Wang; Wee Lee Ting; Hongyuan Yang; Peter T-H Wong (2005) British journal of pharmacology display abstract
This study aims to investigate whether or not long-term statin treatment causes upregulation of D1 and D2 receptor gene expression with concomitant increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in Sprague-Dawley rats. Serum triglyceride levels were dose dependently reduced in the simvastatin-treated rats reaching statistical significance at the highest dose (49% reduction), while pravastatin caused similar effects (52%) at the same dose. Cholesterol levels remained unchanged in both groups at all doses. Simvastatin, 10 or 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1), increased D1 and D2 receptor expressions in the prefrontal cortex. Similar upregulation was observed neither with simvastatin in the striatum nor with pravastatin in both brain regions. Simvastatin (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) also increased eNOS expression in the prefrontal cortex but not neuronal NOS or inducible NOS. D1 receptor activation by chloro-APB (5 microM) increased cAMP levels in synaptosomes prepared from the prefrontal cortex of control and simvastatin-treated rats by 88 and 285%, respectively. This effect was markedly attenuated by the selective D1 antagonist SCH-23390 (25 microM). D2 receptor activation by quinpirole (5 microM) had no effect on the basal cAMP levels in synaptosomes prepared from the prefrontal cortex of control and simvastatin-treated rats, while the same concentration of quinpirole completely abolished the D1 receptor-mediated increase. These results suggest that lipophilic statins can alter dopaminergic functions in the prefrontal cortex possibly via a central mechanism. The possibility of a nitric oxide mechanism involving eNOS requires further investigation.