Phosphodiesterase 5A inhibition induces Na+/H+ exchanger blockade and protection against myocardial infarction.. Néstor G Pérez; Martín R Piaggio; Irene L Ennis; Carolina D Garciarena; Celina Morales; Eduardo M Escudero; Oscar H Cingolani; Gladys Chiappe de Cingolani; Xiao-Ping Yang; Horacio E Cingolani (2007) Hypertension display abstract
Acute phosphodiesterase 5A inhibition by sildenafil or EMD360527/5 promoted profound inhibition of the cardiac Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-1), detected by the almost null intracellular pH recovery from an acute acid load (ammonium prepulse) in isolated papillary muscles from Wistar rats. Inhibition of phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (KT5823) restored normal NHE-1 activity, suggesting a causal link between phosphoglycerate kinase-1 increase and NHE-1 inhibition. We then tested whether the beneficial effects of NHE-1 inhibitors against the deleterious postmyocardial infarction (MI) remodeling can be detected after sildenafil-mediated NHE-1 inhibition. MI was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in Wistar rats, which were randomized to placebo or sildenafil (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 6 weeks. Sildenafil significantly increased left ventricular phosphoglycerate kinase-1 activity in the post-MI group without affecting its expression. MI increased heart weight/body weight ratio, left ventricular myocyte cross-sectional area, interstitial fibrosis, and brain natriuretic peptide and NHE-1 expression. Sildenafil blunted these effects. Neither a significant change in infarct size nor a change in arterial or left ventricular systolic pressure was detected after sildenafil. MI decreased fractional shortening and the ratio of the maximum rate of rise of LVP divided by the pressure at the moment such maximum occurs, effects that were prevented by sildenafil. Intracellular pH recovery after an acid load was faster in papillary muscles from post-MI hearts (versus sham), whereas sildenafil significantly inhibited NHE-1 activity in both post-MI and sildenafil-treated sham groups. We conclude that increased phosphoglycerate kinase-1 activity after acute phosphodiesterase 5A inhibition blunts NHE-1 activity and protects the heart against post-MI remodeling and dysfunction.
Sildenafil citrate attenuates a complex maze impairment induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of the NOS inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.. Bryan D Devan; Paul J Pistell; Lee W DaffinJr; Christopher M Nelson; Kara B Duffy; Jonna L Bowker; Ila S Bharati; Demetrio Sierra-Mercado; Edward L Spangler; Donald K Ingram (2007) European journal of pharmacology display abstract
In a previous study, our laboratory reported that sildenafil citrate, a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, reversed a learning impairment in rats induced by systemic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (60 mg/kg, i.p., Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; L-NAME). To limit the peripheral effects of L-NAME and further localize the site of action of sildenafil, L-NAME (48 microg, i.c.v.) was infused bilaterally into the lateral cerebral ventricles 30 min prior to maze training. Saline or sildenafil citrate (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered systemically 15 min before training. Drug injections occurred 24 h after pretraining rats to avoid foot shock on a one-way active avoidance straight runway. Following drug treatment, the rats received 15 training trials on a 14-unit T-maze task that requires learning a complex sequence of turns to avoid mild foot shock. This complex maze paradigm is sensitive to aging and blockade of cholinergic, N-methyl-D-aspartate and nitric oxide signaling systems. Behavioral measures of performance included deviations from the correct pathway (errors), runtime from start to goal (latency), shock frequency and shock duration. Statistical analysis revealed that central infusion of L-NAME impaired maze performance and that sildenafil (3.0 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the impairment. These results suggest that sildenafil citrate may serve as a cognitive enhancer by modulating central nitric oxide/cGMP signal transduction following N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. This pathway has been implicated in age-related cognitive decline and may be a useful target for pharmacological intervention of neurodegenerative disease.