Highly selective inhibition of human CYP3Aa in vitro by azamulin and evidence that inhibition is irreversible.. David M Stresser; Marc I Broudy; Thuy Ho; Catherine E Cargill; Andrew P Blanchard; Raman Sharma; Andre A Dandeneau; Joseph J Goodwin; Stephanie D Turner; John C L Erve; Christopher J Patten; Shangara S Dehal; Charles L Crespi (2004) Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals display abstract
Azamulin [14-O-(5-(2-amino-1,3,4-triazolyl)thioacetyl)-dihydromutilin] is an azole derivative of the pleuromutilin class of antiinfectives. We tested the inhibition potency of azamulin toward 18 cytochromes P450 using human liver microsomes or microsomes from insect cells expressing single isoforms. In a competitive inhibition model, IC(50) values for CYP3A (0.03-0.24 microM) were at least 100-fold lower than all other non-CYP3A enzymes except CYP2J2 ( approximately 50-fold lower). The IC(50) value with heterologously expressed CYP3A4 was 15-fold and 13-fold less than those of CYP3A5 and CYP3A7, respectively. The reference inhibitor ketoconazole was less selective and exhibited potent inhibition (IC(50) values 300 microM. Azamulin represents an important new chemical tool for use in characterizing the contribution of CYP3A to the metabolism of xenobiotics.
Effects of propofol on human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 activities.. D McKillop; M J Wild; C J Butters; C Simcock (1998) Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems display abstract
1. The potential of propofol to inhibit the activity of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes has been examined in vitro using human liver microsomes. Propofol produced inhibition of CYP1A2 (phenacetin O-deethylation), CYP2C9 (tolbutamide 4'-hydroxylation), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan O-demethylation) and CYP3A4 (testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation) activities with IC50 = 40, 49, 213 and 32 microM respectively. Ki for propofol against all of these enzymes with the exception of CYP2D6, where propofol showed little inhibitory activity, was 30, 30 and 19 microM respectively for CYPs 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. 2. Furafylline, sulphaphenazole, quinidine and ketoconazole, known selective inhibitors of CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 respectively, were much more potent than propofol having IC50 = 0.8, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 microM; furafylline and sulphaphenazole yielded Ki = 0.6 and 0.7 microM respectively. 3. The therapeutic blood concentration of propofol (20 microM; 3-4 microg/ml) together with the in vitro Ki estimates for each of the major human P450 enzymes have been used to estimate the extent of cytochrome P450 inhibition, which may be produced in vivo by propofol. This in vitro-in vivo extrapolation indicates that the degree of inhibition of CYP1A2, 2C9 and 3A4 activity which could theoretically be produced in vivo by propofol is relatively low (40-51%); this is considered unlikely to have any pronounced clinical significance. 4. Although propofol has now been used in > 190 million people since its launch in 1986, there are only single reports of possible drug interactions between propofol and either alfentanil or warfarin. Consequently, it is difficult to conclude from either the published literature or the ZENECA safety database whether there is any evidence to indicate that propofol produces clinically significant drug interactions through inhibition of cytochrome P450-related drug metabolism.