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|Roche brand of tolcapone|
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D1-like dopamine receptor activation and natriuresis by nitrocatechol COMT inhibitors.. M A Vieira-Coelho; P Gomes; M P Serrão; P Soares-da-Silva (2001) Kidney international display abstract
BACKGROUND: In recent years, several nitrocatechol derivatives (tolcapone, entacapone, and nitecapone) have been developed and found to be highly selective and potent inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). More recently, natriuretic properties were described for two of these compounds (entacapone and nitecapone), although this was not accompanied by enhanced urinary excretion of dopamine. We hypothesized that nitrocatechol derivatives stimulate D1-like dopamine receptors. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were treated with a nitrocatechol COMT inhibitor (entacapone, tolcapone, or nitecapone, 30 mg/kg, orally), and the urinary excretion of dopamine and sodium was quantitated. The interaction of nitrocatechol derivatives with D1-like receptors was evaluated by their ability to displace [3H]-Sch23390 binding from membranes of rat renal cortex and cAMP production in opossum kidney (OK) cells. RESULTS: Urinary excretion of sodium (micromol/h) was markedly increased by all three nitrocatechol derivatives: vehicle, 55.0 +/- 5.6; entacapone, 98.4 +/- 9.3; tolcapone, 97.5 +/- 9.3; and nitecapone, 120.5 +/- 12.6. Pretreatment with the selective D1 antagonist Sch 23390 (60 microg/kg) completely prevented their natriuretic effects. Nitecapone and tolcapone were equipotent (IC50s of 48 and 42 micromol/L) and more potent than entacapone and dopamine (IC50s of 107 and 279 micromol/L) in displacing [3H]-Sch23390 binding. In OK cells, all three nitrocatechol derivatives significantly increased cAMP accumulation and reduced Na(+)/H(+) exchange and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, this being prevented by a blockade of D1-like receptors. CONCLUSION: Stimulation of D1-like dopamine receptors and inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchange and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities by nitrocatechol COMT inhibitors may contribute to natriuresis produced by these compounds.
Effect of intracerebral 6-nitronoradrenaline, an endogenous catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, on striatal dopamine metabolism in anaesthetised rats.. M Huotari; M Passlin; H L Nordberg; M Forsberg; S Kotisaari; L Tuomisto; F Shintani; K F Tanaka; I Reenilä; K Laitinen; P T Männistö (2001) Journal of neuroscience methods display abstract
6-Nitronoradrenaline, a bioactive compound recently identified in the brain, is known to inhibit catechol-O-methyltransferase. To study its effect on dopamine metabolism, it was administered into rat striatum via a microdialysis probe. Other nitrated catechols (6-nitrodopamine, 6-nitro-DOPAC and 5-nitro-HVA) were studied for comparison. Tolcapone, a selective catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, was used as a positive reference compound. Both 6-nitronoradrenaline and tolcapone increased striatal extracellular dopamine levels during the perfusion (at 100 microM concentration but not at 10 microM) and decreased the efflux of homovanillic acid. Tolcapone, but not other nitrated catechols, increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid efflux. None of the compounds inhibited MAO-B activity at 100 microM or lower. At 1 mM, 6-nitrodopamine inhibited MAO-B by 60%. Compared to tolcapone, other nitrated catechols were very weak COMT inhibitors in vitro. Neither tolcapone nor 6-nitronoradrenaline modified the metabolism of L-dopa which was given peripherally. In binding studies, both 6-nitronoradrenaline and other nitrocatechols failed to affect the dopamine transporter even at high micromolar concentrations. In conclusion, exogenous 6-nitronoradrenaline can act as a COMT inhibitor in the striatum and elevate striatal dopamine levels without inhibiting dopamine reuptake. Whether endogenous 6-nitronoradrenaline can be formed also in vivo in the striatum and act as a regulator of dopaminergic tone remains to be determined.
Different modes of action of catecholamine-O-methyltransferase inhibitors entacapone and tolcapone on adenylyl cyclase activity in vitro.. M Gerlach; W Ukai; H Ozawa; P Riederer (2002) Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) display abstract
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors such as entacapone and tolcapone are used as adjuncts to L-DOPA ( l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, levodopa) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Tolcapone has been reported to associate with diarrhoea, a common reason for study withdrawal. The mechanism of this adverse effect is not yet understood. Cholera toxin causes diarrhoea by permanent activation of G(s) proteins, resulting in increased adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the COMT inhibitors entacapone and tolcapone on AC activity in membranes isolated from rat striatum, a brain structure enriched with dopaminergic G-protein-coupled receptors and AC activity. This study demonstrates differential effects of tolcapone and entacapone on Gpp(NH)p/dopamine-stimulated AC activity. Entacapone enhanced the stimulatory effect of Gpp(NH)p/dopamine, whereas tolcapone attentuated this effect, suggesting that diarrhoea associated with tolcapone treatment is not caused by permanent activation of G(s) proteins.