Coordinate up- and down-regulation of glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in A549 cells. Inhibition by NS-398 and leukotriene C4.. S Thorén; P J Jakobsson (2000) European journal of biochemistry / FEBS display abstract
Recently, a microsomal protein with 38% sequence identity to microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 was shown to constitute an inducible, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase (PGES). To investigate the relationship between cyclooxygenase and PGES, a time-course study on protein expression was performed in A549 cells after treatment with interleukin-1beta. The result demonstrated a tandem expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGES. The observed induction of PGES protein correlated with microsomal PGES activity. No comparable PGES activity was observed in the absence of glutathione or in the cytosolic fraction. In addition, tumour necrosis factor-alpha was found to induce PGES in these cells. Dexamethasone was found to completely suppress the effect of both cytokines on PGES induction. We also describe a quantitative method, based on RP-HPLC with UV detection for the measurements of PGES activity. This method was used to screen potential PGES inhibitors. Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stable prostaglandin H2 analogues and cysteinyl leukotrienes were screened for inhibition of PGES activity. NS-398, sulindac sulfide and leukotriene C4 were all found to inhibit PGES activity with IC50 values of 20 microM, 80 microM and 5 microM, respectively. In conclusion, it appears that PGES and cyclooxygenase-2 are functionally coupled in A549 cells and that a required coordinate expression of these enzymes allows for efficient biosynthesis of prostaglandin E2.
Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression reduces apoptotic susceptibility by inhibiting the cytochrome c-dependent apoptotic pathway in human colon cancer cells.. Yunjie Sun; Xi Ming Tang; Elizabeth Half; M Tien Kuo; Frank A Sinicrope (2002) Cancer research display abstract
The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene encodes an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and is up-regulated in colorectal neoplasms. Evidence indicates that COX-2 may regulate apoptosis and can influence the malignant phenotype. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzymes and induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines, which may contribute to their antitumor effects. To determine whether forced COX-2 expression modulates susceptibility to drug-induced apoptosis, HCT-15 colon carcinoma cells were stably transfected with the COX-2 cDNA, and two clones overexpressing COX-2 were isolated. Selective COX-2 (NS398) and nonselective (sulindac sulfide) COX inhibitors, as well as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), induced apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling in a dosage-dependent manner. Forced COX-2 expression significantly attenuated induction of apoptosis by all three of the drugs compared with parental HCT-15 cells. NSAIDs and 5-FU induced the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c as well as caspase-3 and -9 activation, and to a much lesser extent, caspase-8. COX-2-overexpressing cells showed reduced cytochrome c and caspase activation, relative to parental cells. A specific inhibitor of caspase-3 restored cell survival after drug treatment. COX-2 transfectants were found to overexpress the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA and protein relative to parental cells. In conclusion, forced COX-2 expression significantly attenuates apoptosis induction by NSAIDs and 5-FU through predominant inhibition of the cytochrome c-dependent apoptotic pathway. COX-2-mediated up-regulation of Bcl-2 suggests a potential mechanism for reduced apoptotic susceptibility.
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 suppresses cell growth and constitutive production of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in lung cancer cells.. Hideshi Nakata; Yoshiki Uemura; Makoto Kobayashi; Ryoji Harada; Hirokuni Taguchi (2003) Cancer science display abstract
We previously established two lung cancer cell lines, OKa-C-1 and MI-4, which constitutively produce abundant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-1beta stimulated the expression of G-CSF, GM-CSF, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the two cell lines. It is known that increased COX-2 activity promotes tumor growth and induces G-CSF and GM-CSF expression in non-malignant cells, and that selective COX-2 inhibitors inhibit the growth of some types of malignant cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of COX-2 activity might suppress constitutive production of G-CSF or GM-CSF in addition to reducing the growth of malignant cells. We confirmed that the selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398 suppressed the constitutive production of G-CSF and GM-CSF, and the cell growth in both OKa-C-1 and MI-4 cell lines. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) reversed the inhibitions of G-CSF and GM-CSF expression, as well as cell growth, by NS-398. This result confirms that the effects of NS-398 are based on the inhibition of COX activity. Some studies have indicated that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) or MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) activation is related to upregulation of G-CSF, GM-CSF or COX-2 expression in some types of cells. Therefore, we examined if the actions of NS-398 might be mediated by the MAP kinase pathway or NF-kappaB activity in OKa-C-1 and MI-4 cells. We found that NS-398 inhibits G-CSF and GM-CSF production and cell growth through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) signaling pathway in these cell lines. The prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer showing G-CSF gene expression is significantly worse. G-CSF overproduction by tumor cells is observed at an advanced clinical stage. Our findings imply that a COX-2 inhibitor might improve the prognosis of patients with lung cancer through the reduction of G-CSF or GM-CSF.
Suppressive effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on cytokine release in human neutrophils.. Toru Kimura; Masayasu Iwase; Gen Kondo; Hitoshi Watanabe; Masaru Ohashi; Daisuke Ito; Masao Nagumo (2003) International immunopharmacology display abstract
To clarify whether a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor can affect various functions in human peripheral blood neutrophils. For this purpose, the effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors, NS-398 and nimesulide, on the expression of COX-2, PGE2 release and respiratory burst, degranulation and cytokine release in activated neutrophils were examined. Peripheral blood neutrophils were stimulated with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 100 nM) or opsonized zymosan (OZ; 200 microg/ml). Then, the expression of COX-2 at protein and mRNA levels was detected by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. The concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines in the culture supernatant of neutrophils was determined using ELISA. Superoxide generation was measured by the cytochrome c reduction method. Elastase activity was measured using a chromogenic substrate assay specific for human neutrophil elastase. FMLP and OZ enhanced PGE2 release through induction of COX-2 protein and mRNA expression. FMLP- or OZ-induced PGE2 release was abolished by the addition of NS-398 or nimesulide; nevertheless, even a high concentration of COX-2 inhibitor did not change FMLP- or OZ-induced expression of COX-2 at message and protein levels. Although FMLP- or OZ-induced superoxide generation and elastase release were not affected by the addition of COX-2 inhibitor, cytokine release such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited by high concentration of COX-2 inhibitor, but tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was partially attenuated. These studies showed that selective COX-2 inhibitors, NS-398 and nimesulide, suppressed PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokine release in activated neutrophils. These results suggest that selective COX-2 inhibitors may contribute to resolution of acute inflammation through the reduction of inflammatory cytokine release in activated neutrophils.
Differential effects of COX inhibitors against beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells.. P Ferrera; C Arias (2005) Neurochemistry international display abstract
Retrospective epidemiological studies have suggested that chronic treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provides some degree of protection from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although most NSAIDs inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of prostanoids from arachidonic acid (AA), the precise mechanism through which NSAIDs act upon AD pathology remains to be elucidated. Classical NSAIDs like indomethacin inhibit both the constitutive COX-1 and the inducible COX-2 enzymes. In the present work, we characterize the protective effect of the indomethacin on the neurotoxicity elicited by amyloid-beta protein (A beta, fragments 25-35 and 1-42) alone or in combination with AA added exogenously as well as its effects on COX-2 expression. We also compared the neuroprotective effects of indomethacin with the selective COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibitors, SC-560, NS-398 and NDGA, respectively. Our results show that indomethacin protected from A beta and AA toxicity in naive and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells with more potency than SC-560 while, NS-398 only protected neurons from AA-mediated toxicity. Present results suggest that A beta toxicity can be reversed more efficiently by the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin suggesting its role in modulating the signal transduction pathway involved in the mechanism of A beta neurotoxicity.