Amelioration of myocardial global ischemia/reperfusion injury with volume-regulatory chloride channel inhibitors in vivo.. Kazuhiro Mizoguchi; Hajime Maeta; Akira Yamamoto; Masahiro Oe; Hiroaki Kosaka (2002) Transplantation display abstract
BACKGROUND: Recently, the apoptotic volume decrease was suggested to be regulated by volume regulatory Cl- channels in cultured cell lines. We thus examined whether inhibition of volume-regulatory Cl- channels is cardioprotective, like caspase inhibition, by hindering the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by global ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. METHODS: We performed global ischemia for 8 min at 37 degrees C or 4 degrees C in isolated rat hearts, followed by 24-hr reperfusion via heterotopic heart transplantation. The heart tissue was examined by means of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method, genomic DNA electrophoresis, and caspase-3 activity. Two blockers of volume-regulatory Cl- channels, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB), and a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, benzoyloxycarbonyl-Asp-CH2OC(O)-2,6-dichlorobenzene (Z-Asp-DCB), were administered intravenously. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and ultrasound cardiography were performed to examine myocardial viability. The TTC-unstained region was assessed by means of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) infiltration and the TUNEL method. RESULTS: The transplanted hearts showed TUNEL-positivity and DNA laddering with a peak at 24 hr during reperfusion after ischemia at 37 degrees C, but not at 4 degrees C. NPPB and DIDS were as potent as Z-Asp-DCB for recovery of cardiac function and for blocking the appearance of TUNEL-positivity, DNA laddering, caspase 3 activity, and a TTC-unstained area. TTC-unstained areas were composed of either TUNEL- and slightly HRP-positive or TUNEL-negative and strongly HRP-positive cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that myocardial DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and loss of cardiac function after global I/R were blocked by NPPB and DIDS, similar to in the case of Z-Asp-DCB. These results suggest that inhibition of volume-regulatory Cl- channels is also effective for preventing cardiac I/R injury.