|Ki: ||Kd:||Ic 50:||Ec50/Ic50:|
Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent inhibition of IL-5 from human T lymphocytes is not mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A.. K J Staples; M Bergmann; K Tomita; M D Houslay; I McPhee; P J Barnes; M A Giembycz; R Newton (2001) Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) display abstract
IL-5 is implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and is predominantly released from T lymphocytes of the Th2 phenotype. In anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28-stimulated PBMC, albuterol, isoproterenol, rolipram, PGE2, forskolin, cholera toxin, and the cAMP analog, 8-bromoadenosine cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) all inhibited the release of IL-5 and lymphocyte proliferation. Although all of the above compounds share the ability to increase intracellular cAMP levels and activate protein kinase (PK) A, the PKA inhibitor H-89 failed to ablate the inhibition of IL-5 production mediated by 8-Br-cAMP, rolipram, forskolin, or PGE2. Similarly, H-89 had no effect on the cAMP-mediated inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. Significantly, these observations occurred at a concentration of H-89 (3 microM) that inhibited both PKA activity and CREB phosphorylation in intact cells. Additional studies showed that the PKA inhibitors H-8, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate Rp isomer, and a myristolated PKA inhibitor peptide also failed to block the 8-Br-cAMP-mediated inhibition of IL-5 release from PBMC. Likewise, a role for PKG was considered unlikely because both activators and inhibitors of this enzyme had no effect on IL-5 release. Western blotting identified Rap1, a downstream target of the cAMP-binding proteins, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP/cAMP-guanine nucleotide exchange factors 1 and 2, in PBMC. However, Rap1 activation assays revealed that this pathway is also unlikely to be involved in the cAMP-mediated inhibition of IL-5. Taken together, these results indicate that cAMP-elevating agents inhibit IL-5 release from PBMC by a novel cAMP-dependent mechanism that does not involve the activation of PKA.
N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine inhibits inducible HSP-70 via Ca(2+), PKC, and PKA in human intestinal epithelial T84 cells.. Juliann G Kiang; Sharon C Kiang; Yuang-Taung Juang; George C Tsokos (2002) American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology display abstract
The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) inhibits heat stress (HS)-induced NO production and the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-70i) in many rodent organs. We used human intestinal epithelial T84 cells to characterize the inhibitory effect of L-NNA on HS-induced HSP-70i expression. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured using fura-2, and protein kinase C (PKC), and PKA activities were determined. HS increased HSP-70i mRNA and protein in T84 cells exposed to 45 degrees C for 10 min and allowed to recover for 6 h. L-NNA treatment for 1 h before HS inhibited the induction of HSP-70i mRNA and protein, with an IC(50) of 0.0471 +/- 0.0007 microM. Because the HS-induced increase in HSP-70i mRNA and protein is Ca(2+) dependent, we measured [Ca(2+)](i) after treating cells with L-NNA. L-NNA at 100 microM significantly decreased resting [Ca(2+)](i). Likewise, treatment with 1 microM GF-109203X or H-89 (inhibitors of PKC and PKA, respectively) for 30 min also significantly decreased [Ca(2+)](i) and inhibited HS-induced increase in HSP-70i. GF-109203X- or H-89-treated cells failed to respond to L-NNA by further decreasing [Ca(2+)](i) and HSP-70i. L-NNA effectively blocked heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, a process requiring PKC phosphorylation. These results suggest that L-NNA inhibits HSP-70i by reducing [Ca(2+)](i) and decreasing PKC and PKA activity, thereby blocking HSF1 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus.
Inhibition of protein kinases A and C demonstrates dual modes of response in human eosinophils stimulated with platelet-activating factor.. Takumi Takizawa; Masahiko Kato; Hirokazu Kimura; Masato Suzuki; Atsushi Tachibana; Hideru Obinata; Takashi Izumi; Kenichi Tokuyama; Akihiro Morikawa (2002) The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology display abstract
BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent stimulator of human eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. However, intracellular signaling mechanisms in eosinophils involving the PAF receptor are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) in signaling pathways of human eosinophils stimulated with PAF. METHODS: After pretreatment with a PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I, or a PKA inhibitor, H89, we investigated PAF-evoked functions, such as CD11b expression, cellular adhesion, superoxide anion generation, and degranulation in human eosinophils. RESULTS: Preincubation of eosinophils with bisindolylmaleimide I resulted in enhancement of upregulated CD11b expression and adhesion induced by PAF. H89 pretreatment also enhanced PAF-induced cellular adhesion. Superoxide anion generation and degranulation were suppressed by means of inhibition of either PKC or PKA. CONCLUSION: PKC and PKA negatively regulate PAF-induced CD11b upregulation and cellular adhesion but promote eosinophil effector functions, such as superoxide anion generation and degranulation. PKC and PKA modulate PAF-evoked intracellular signaling of the eosinophil function in distinct ways.
Inhibition of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated respiratory burst in human neutrophils by adrenaline: inhibition of Phospholipase A2 activity but not p47phox phosphorylation and translocation.. Yvonne M O'Dowd; Jamel El-Benna; Axel Perianin; Philip Newsholme (2004) Biochemical pharmacology display abstract
The polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-respiratory burst plays a key role in host defense and inflammatory reactions. Modulation of this key neutrophil function by endogenous agents and the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. This study was designed to analyze the mechanisms involved in the effect of adrenaline on neutrophil superoxide anions production. Using the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction assay, we report here that the beta-adrenergic agonist, adrenaline at physiologic concentrations (5-100 nM) inhibited formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated but not phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA)-stimulated PMN superoxide anion production. The inhibitory effect of adrenaline runs in parallel with an increase in intracellular levels of cAMP which was reversed by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, suggesting a role for PKA in mediating the inhibitory effect of adrenaline on fMLP-induced superoxide production. Adrenaline at physiological concentrations did not inhibit the fMLP-stimulated membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase components p47phox and p67phox, nor the fMLP-stimulated phosphorylation of p47phox. However, adrenaline strongly depressed the activity of the cytosolic isoform of Phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). We suggest that adrenaline inhibits fMLP induced superoxide production upstream of the NADPH oxidase via a mechanism involving PKA and cPLA(2).
N-[2-bromocinnamyl(amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide (H-89) inhibits incorporation of choline into phosphatidylcholine via inhibition of choline kinase and has no effect on the phosphorylation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase.. M Wieprecht; T Wieder; C C Geilen (1994) The Biochemical journal display abstract
We have shown previously that N-[2-bromocinnamyl(amino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide (H-89), a selective inhibitor of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), inhibits phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in HeLa cells. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the described inhibition. Treatment of cells with 10 microM H-89 had no effect on the phosphorylation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. However, H-89 slightly affected the distribution of cytidylyltransferase between cytosol and membranes, but the cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol content was not influenced. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments revealed that H-89 did not affect cytidylyltransferase activity. Instead, H-89 inhibited choline kinase, the enzyme catalysing the first step in the CDP-choline pathway. In the presence of 10 microM H-89, choline kinase activity was inhibited by 36 +/- 7.6% in vitro. Additionally, the phosphorylation of choline to phosphocholine was inhibited by 30 +/- 3% in cell-culture experiments. This inhibitory effect could be partly prevented by simultaneous addition of 10 microM forskolin, indicating that choline kinase is regulated in part by PKA activity.
Induction of differentiation of U-937 cells by 2-chloro-3-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone.. H Kwon; S Y Choung (1997) Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology display abstract
Naphthoquinone compounds have various pharmacological effects such as antiviral, antifungal and anticancer activities. We demonstrated the differentiation of the inducing effect of a naphthoquinone derivative, 2-chloro-3-amino-1,4-nahpthoquinone (NQCA) on the human leukemia cell line U-937. When U-937 cells were treated with NQCA for 4 days, phenotypes indicative of differentiation such as nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-reducing activity and phagocytosis were induced. To evaluate the route of differentiation of U-937 cells induced by NQCA, we determined naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase activities. Four days treatment of U-937 cells with NQCA increased alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase activity about 63.5% but naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase was not detected. These results indicate that NQCA caused differentiation of U-937 cells into macrophage-like cells. Since protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) have important roles in cell-differentiation and proliferation, we employed a PKC inhibitor NA-382 and a PKA inhibitor H-89 to examine the effects of each kinase on the differentiation of U-937 cells. The PKC inhibitor NA-382 decreased the effect of NQCA on U-937 cells, while the PKA inhibitor H-89 did not. Also glutathione (GSH) inhibited the effect of NQCA. It is concluded that the differentiation-inducing effect of NQCA on U-937 cells may be attributed to PKC activation followed by production of free radicals.