|Ki: ||Kd:||Ic 50:||Ec50/Ic50:|
In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes by a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), and its nonamine analog, cyclopropylbenzene.. P Taavitsainen; R Juvonen; O Pelkonen (2001) Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals display abstract
Currently, there are no selective, well characterized inhibitors for CYP2A6. Therefore, the effects of trans-(+/-)-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, on human liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) were studied to elucidate its selectivity. The IC50 value of tranylcypromine in coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6 model activity) was 0.42 +/- 0.07 microM and in chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1 model activity) 3.0 +/- 1.1 microM. The IC50 values for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 activities were >10 microM. Potency and selectivity of tranylcypromine were strongly dependent on the amine group, because its nonamine analog cyclopropylbenzene was much less potent inhibitor of CYP1A, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 activities and did not inhibit at all CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 activities. In human liver microsomes tranylcypromine induced type II and cyclopropylbenzene type I difference spectrum. According to the double reciprocal analysis of these spectral responses both tranylcypromine and cyclopropylbenzene may have at least two P450-related binding sites in liver microsomes. The K(a) values of tranylcypromine varied from 4.5 to 15.1 microM and -34.3 to 167 microM in microsomes derived from three different livers and of cyclopropylbenzene from -1.6 to 10.1 microM and -34.6 and 75.2 microM in the same liver microsomes. Based on these results, tranylcypromine seems an adequately selective CYP2A6 inhibitor for in vitro use.
Evaluation of methoxsalen, tranylcypromine, and tryptamine as specific and selective CYP2A6 inhibitors in vitro.. W Zhang; T Kilicarslan; R F Tyndale; E M Sellers (2001) Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals display abstract
CYP2A6 is the principle enzyme metabolizing nicotine to its inactive metabolite cotinine. In this study, the selective probe reactions for each major cytochrome P450 (P450) were used to evaluate the specificity and selectivity of the CYP2A6 inhibitors methoxsalen, tranylcypromine, and tryptamine in cDNA-expressing and human liver microsomes. Phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6), diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation (CYP2C9), omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan O-demethylation (CYP2D6), 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin deethylation (CYP2B6), p-nitrophenol hydroxylation (CYP2E1), and omeprazole sulfonation (CYP3A4) were used as index reactions. Apparent K(i) values for inhibition of P450s' (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) activities showed that tranylcypromine, methoxsalen, and tryptamine have high specificity and relative selectivity for CYP2A6. In cDNA-expressing microsomes, tranylcypromine inhibited CYP2A6 (K(i) = 0.08 microM) with about 60- to 5000-fold greater potency relative to other P450s. Methoxsalen inhibited CYP2A6 (K(i) = 0.8 microM) with about 3.5- 94-fold greater potency than other P450s, except for CYP1A2 (K(i) = 0.2 microM). Tryptamine inhibited CYP2A6 (K(i) = 1.7 microM) with about 6.5- 213-fold greater potency relative to other P450s, except for CYP1A2 (K(i) = 1.7 microM). Similar results were also obtained with methoxsalen and tranylcypromine in human liver microsomes. R-(+)-Tranylcypromine, (+/-)-tranylcypromine, and S-(-)-tranylcypromine competitively inhibited CYP2A6-mediated metabolism of nicotine with apparent K(i) values of 0.05, 0.08, and 2.0 microM, respectively. Tranylcypromine [particularly R-(+) isomer], tryptamine, and methoxsalen are specific and relatively selective for CYP2A6 and may be useful in vivo to decrease smoking by inhibiting nicotine metabolism with a low risk of metabolic drug interactions.
Inhibition of coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes.. A J Draper; A Madan; A Parkinson (1997) Archives of biochemistry and biophysics display abstract
Nine organic solvents and 47 commonly used P450 substrates and inhibitors were examined for their effects on coumarin 7-hydroxylase (CYP2A6) activity in human liver microsomes. Of the nine organic solvents examined (final concentration 1%, v/v), only methanol did not inhibit the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin (0.5 to 50 microM) by human liver microsomes. Dioxane and tetra-hydrofuran, which are structurally related to coumarin, were the most inhibitory solvents examined. Although the rates of coumarin 7-hydroxylation varied enormously among nine samples of human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYP2A6 (Vmax = 179 to 2470 pmol/ mg protein/min), the Km for coumarin 7-hydroxylation was fairly constant (ranging from 0.50 to 0.70 microM). The following chemicals caused little or no inhibition of CYP2A6 as defined by a Ki > 200 microM: caffeine, chlorzoxazone, cimetidine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, diclofenac, erythromycin, ethinylestradiol, ethynyltestosterone, fluconazole, furafylline, furfural, hexobarbital, itraconazole, mephenytoin, methimazole, metronidazole, naringenin, naringin, nifedipine, norfloxacin, norgestrel, orphenadrine, quinidine, papaverine, phenacetin, pyrimethamine, ranitidine, spironolactone, sulfaphenazole, sulfinpyrazone, testosterone, tolbutamide, troleandomycin, and warfarin. In other words, these chemicals, at a final concentration of 100 microM, failed to inhibit CYP2A6 when the concentration of coumarin was equal to Km (0.50 microM). The following chemicals were classified as strong inhibitors of CYP2A6 (defined by Ki < 200 microM): clotrimazole, diethyldithiocarbamate, ellipticine, ketoconazole, 8-methoxypsoralen, 4-methylpyrazole, metyrapone, miconazole, alpha-naphthoflavone, nicotine, p-nitrophenol, and tranylcypromine. The potency with which each chemical inhibited the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin was independent of which sample of human liver microsomes was studied. One of the most potent inhibitors of coumarin 7-hydroxylase was 8-methoxypsoralen (methoxsalen), which was determined to be a mechanism-based inhibitor (suicide substrate) of CYP2A6 (k(inactivation) 0.5 min-1). With the exception of 8-methoxypsoralen, preincubation of human liver microsomes and NADPH with the aforementioned inhibitors did not increase their ability to inhibit CYP2A6. The most potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2A6 was tranylcypromine (Ki = 0.04 microM). Several of the chemicals that strongly inhibited CYP2A6, such as ketoconazole and tranylcypromine, are often used with the intention of selectively inhibiting human P450 enzymes other than CYP2A6. The results of this study underscore the need for a systematic evaluation of the specificity of commonly used P450 inhibitors.