Bioactivation to free radicals and cytotoxicity of 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b).. A Zanovello; R Tolando; R Ferrara; S Bortolato; M Manno (2001) Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems display abstract
1. The in vitro bioactivation by rat liver microsomes and the cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes of 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b), a replacement for some ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), have been investigated. 2. Anaerobic incubations of liver microsomes from pyridine-induced rats with HCFC-141b in the presence of the spin-trapping agent N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) resulted in the formation of a typical ESR radical signal. 3. In the presence of HCFC-141b, a dose-dependent formation of conjugated dienes was observed that was partially inhibited by PBN, glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C. Moreover, HCFC-141b increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the depletion of cellular glutathione in isolated rat hepatocytes under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 4. HCFC-141b-dependent cytotoxicity was completely prevented by PBN under both conditions and it was partially prevented under normoxic conditions by the broad-spectrum P450 inhibitor metyrapone, the P4502E1 specific inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and the P4503A-specific inhibitor troleandomycin. Interestingly, HCFC-141b-dependent glutathione depletion was not prevented by PBN, metyrapone, 4-methylpyrazole or troleandomycin, whereas two glutathione depletors, 2,6-dimethyl-2,5-heptadien-4-one (phorone) and diethylmaleate, partially prevented LDH release. 5. The present results indicate that HCFC-141b is reductively metabolized in vitro to free radical intermediates by P450, in particular by the CYP2E1 and, to a lower extent, CYP3A isoforms, leading to peroxidative membrane damage and glutathione-independent cytotoxicity.