|show drug details|
|15307-81-0 (mono-potassium salt)|
|ACETIC ACID, (o-(2,6-DICHLOROANILINO)PHENYL)-|
|Acetic acid, [o-(2,6-dichloroanilino)phenyl]- (8CI)|
|Benzeneacetic acid, 2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)-|
|Benzeneacetic acid, 2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)- (9CI)|
|Benzeneacetic acid, 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-|
|Ki: ||Kd:||Ic 50:||Ec50/Ic50:|
Interaction of delavirdine with human liver microsomal cytochrome P450: inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6.. R L Voorman; N A Payne; L C Wienkers; M J Hauer; P E Sanders (2001) Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals display abstract
Delavirdine, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, is metabolized primarily through desalkylation catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 and by pyridine hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP3A4. It is also an irreversible inhibitor of CYP3A4. The interaction of delavirdine with CYP2C9 was examined with pooled human liver microsomes using diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation as a reporter of CYP2C9 catalytic activity. As delavirdine concentration was increased from 0 to 100 microM, the K(M) for diclofenac metabolism rose from 4.5+/-0.5 to 21+/-6 microM, and V(max) declined from 4.2+/-0.1 to 0.54+/-0.08 nmol/min/mg of protein, characteristic of mixed-type inhibition. Nonlinear regression analysis revealed an apparent K(i) of 2.6+/-0.4 microM. There was no evidence for bioactivation as prerequisite to inhibition of CYP2C9. Desalkyl delavirdine, the major circulating metabolite of delavirdine, had no apparent effect on microsomal CYP2C9 activity at concentrations up to 20 microM. Several analogs of delavirdine showed similar inhibition of CYP2C9. Delavirdine significantly inhibited cDNA-expressed CYP2C19-catalyzed (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation in a noncompetitive manner, with an apparent K(i) of 24+/-3 microM. Delavirdine at concentrations up to 100 microM did not inhibit the activity of CYP1A2 or -2E1. Delavirdine competitively inhibited recombinant CYP2D6 activity with a K(i) of 12.8+/-1.8 microM, similar to the observed K(M) for delavirdine desalkylation. These results, along with previously reported experiments, indicate that delavirdine can partially inhibit CYP2C9, -2C19, -2D6, and -3A4, although the degree of inhibition in vivo would be subject to a variety of additional factors.
Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2C11 by diclofenac.. Y Masubuchi; A Ose; T Horie (2001) Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals display abstract
It has been known that diclofenac is biotransformed into chemically reactive metabolites, which bind covalently to liver microsomal proteins, including cytochrome P450 enzyme(s). We have investigated the ability and selectivity of diclofenac to inactivate P450 enzymes. Preincubation of microsomes of untreated rats with diclofenac in the presence of NADPH resulted in time-dependent loss of testosterone 2alpha- and 16alpha-hydroxylation activities. No effect of the preincubation was observed on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase, or testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation activity. The time-dependent decreases in testosterone 2alpha- and 16alpha-hydroxylation activities followed the pseudo-first order kinetics and were saturable with increasing diclofenac concentrations. Reduced glutathione was not capable of protecting against the decrease in the enzyme activities. These data establish that a mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2C11 occurs during the oxidative metabolism of diclofenac. The diclofenac concentrations required to achieve the half-maximal rate of inactivation (K(I)) were 3 to 4 microM, which were close to K(m) for the low-K(m) components for diclofenac 4'- and 5-hydroxylation activities (7.29 and 4.43 microM, respectively). Anti-CYP2C11 IgG inhibited diclofenac 4'- and 5-hydroxylation activities, indicating that CYP2C11 is a major isozyme responsible for these aromatic oxidations. The preincubation of microsomes with 4'- or 5-hydroxydiclofenac did not cause a decrease in testosterone 2alpha- or 16alpha-hydroxylation activity, suggesting that neither of the primary metabolites is a precursor of the metabolite that inactivates CYP2C11. Therefore, a highly reactive intermediate(s) inactivating CYP2C11, probably arene-oxide, appears to be generated during the process of diclofenac 4'- and/or 5-hydroxylation. Diclofenac metabolism in human liver microsomes did not cause inactivation of CYP2C9, a major isozyme involved in diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. Because the human microsomes have high diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation but not 5-hydroxylation activity, importance of the latter pathway in the inactivation is suggested.
Inhibition of human hepatic cytochrome P450s and steroidogenic CYP17 by nonylphenol.. Toshiro Niwa; Yumi Maekawa; Megumi Fujimoto; Kae Kishimoto; Yoshiyasu Yabusaki; Fumihide Ishibashi; Masanao Katagiri (2002) Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin display abstract
Effect of nonylphenol on aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, a typical drug-metabolizing enzyme activity, by ten kinds of human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP) and on progesterone 17alpha-hydroxylase activity by steroidogenic CYP17 was investigated. When determined at 2 mM substrate concentration, nonylphenol (1 mM) most efficiently inhibited aminopyrine N-demethylation by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, by 61% and 59%, respectively, followed by CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C18 and CYP2C8 (46-51%), whereas inhibition of the activities by other CYPs was less than 27%. Additionally, nonylphenol competitively inhibited diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation by CYP2C9 and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation by CYP2C19 with Ki values of 5.3 and 37 microM, respectively. Furthermore, nonylphenol exhibited a competitive inhibition of progesterone 17alpha-hydroxylase activity by CYP17 with Ki value of 62 microM. These results suggest that nonylphenol inhibits human hepatic CYPs, especially CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, and steroidogenic CYP17 activities.