(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses endothelin-1-induced interleukin-6 synthesis in osteoblasts: inhibition of p44/p42 MAP kinase activation.. Haruhiko Tokuda; Shinji Takai; Yoshiteru Hanai; Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki; Takayuki Hosoi; Atsushi Harada; Toshiki Ohta; Osamu Kozawa (2007) FEBS letters display abstract
We previously showed that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates the synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a potent bone resorptive agent, in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, and that protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase plays a part in the IL-6 synthesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), one of the major flavonoids containing in green tea, on ET-1-induced IL-6 synthesis in osteoblasts and the underlying mechanism. EGCG significantly reduced the synthesis of IL-6 stimulated by ET-1 in MC3T3-E1 cells as well primary cultured mouse osteoblasts. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not SP600125, a specific SAPK/JNK inhibitor, suppressed ET-1-stimulated IL-6 synthesis. ET-1-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was not affected by EGCG. On the other hand, EGCG suppressed the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase induced by ET-1. Both the IL-6 synthesis and the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a direct activator of PKC, were markedly suppressed by EGCG. The phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and Raf-1 induced by ET-1 or TPA were also inhibited by EGCG. These results strongly suggest that EGCG inhibits ET-1-stimulated synthesis of IL-6 via suppression of p44/p42 MAP kinase pathway in osteoblasts, and the inhibitory effect is exerted at a point between PKC and Raf-1 in the ET-1 signaling cascade.