Interaction of dicaffeoylquinic derivatives with peroxynitrite and other reactive nitrogen species.. Ana Olmos; Rosa M Giner; M Carmen Recio; José L Ríos; Rosario Gil-Benso; Salvador Máñez (2008) Archives of biochemistry and biophysics display abstract
Plant phenolic antioxidants, among them catechins and hydroxycinnamoyl conjugates, constitute a well defined class of inhibitors of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). To gain deeper insight in this field, we examined the effects of 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCA), its methyl ester (DCE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in nitrative and oxidative processes. These compounds were found to be strong inhibitors of the nitration of tyrosine residues induced by ONOO- in bovine seroalbumin, with their IC50 values (10-40 microM) notably decreasing in the presence of bicarbonate. When studied on the intracellular protein tyrosine nitration induced by ONOO- in cultured murine fibroblasts as well as that induced by phorbol ester (PMA) in nitrite-supplemented human neutrophils, all three phenolics were also effective (100% and over 75% inhibition for fibroblasts and neutrophils, respectively, at 25 microM). This ability seems to be due to a direct interaction with ONOO- or with the species generated by leukocytes. The possible interference with the production of NO was also studied: both DCA and EGCG inhibited nitrite production in LPS-stimulated macrophages by 24% and 40%, respectively, and the expression of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2), as well. DCA and EGCG reduced by 52% and 59%, respectively, the NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. In contrast, DCE did not show any effect. The assayed phenolics exert varying degrees of protection against the chemical modifications induced by RNS depending not only on the hydroxyl pattern, but also on the presence of bicarbonate.
EGCG inhibits mammary cancer cell migration through inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase.. Thejass Punathil; Trygve O Tollefsbol; Santosh K Katiyar (2008) Biochemical and biophysical research communications display abstract
Tumor cell migration is considered as a major event in the metastatic cascade. Here we examined the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on migration capacity and molecular mechanism using 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells as a model. Using an in vitro migration assay, we found that treatment of 4T1 cells with EGCG resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of migration of these cells. The migration capacity of cells was reduced in presence of N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. EGCG suppressed the elevated levels of endogenous NO/NOS in 4T1 cells and blocked the migration promoting capacity of l-arginine. Treatment with guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiaxolo[4,3-a]quinolalin-1-one (ODQ) reduced the migration of 4T1 cells. EGCG reduced the elevated levels of cGMP in cancer cells and blocked the migration restoring activity of 8-Br cGMP (cGMP analogue). These results indicate for the first time that EGCG inhibits mammary cancer cell migration through the inhibition of NO/NOS and guanylate cyclase.