Fluvoxamine inhibition and carbamazepine induction of the metabolism of clozapine: evidence from a therapeutic drug monitoring service.. M Jerling; L Lindstr÷m; U Bondesson; L Bertilsson (1994) Therapeutic drug monitoring display abstract
Therapeutic drug monitoring data for clozapine were used to study interactions with other drugs. The distribution of the ratio concentration/dose (C/D) of clozapine was compared in four matched groups--patients simultaneously treated with benzodiazepines, patients on drugs that inhibit the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6, patients taking carbamazepine, and those not taking any of these drugs. No difference was seen among the monotherapy, CYP2D6, and benzodiazepine groups. Patients on carbamazepine had a mean 50% lower C/D than the monotherapy group (p < 0.001), indicating that carbamazepine is an inducer of the metabolism of clozapine. The C/D was inversely correlated to the daily dose of carbamazepine. Intraindividual comparisons in eight patients, with analyses both on and off carbamazepine, confirmed a substantial decrease of the clozapine concentration when carbamazepine was introduced. Four patients treated with clozapine were concomitantly given the antidepressant fluvoxamine. Three of them exhibited a much higher C/D ratio when on fluvoxamine compared with the monotherapy group. Two had their clozapine levels analyzed when on and off fluvoxamine. The dose-normalized clozapine concentration increased by a factor of 5-10 when fluvoxamine was added. We conclude that carbamazepine causes decreased clozapine plasma levels, while fluvoxamine increases the levels. The pathways are not known with certainty, but CYP1A2 may be of major importance for the metabolism of clozapine, since fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of this enzyme. A recent panel study suggests that determination of CYP1A2 activity with the caffeine test may be very useful for the dosing of clozapine. The induction of clozapine metabolism by carbamazepine might be partly mediated by CYP3A4.
Cytochrome P450 isozymes and antiepileptic drug interactions.. R H Levy (1995) Epilepsia display abstract
Recent findings about individual isoforms of the cytochromes P450 involved in the metabolism of phenytoin (PHT) and carbamazepine (CBZ) make prediction of inhibition-based interactions possible. PHT is eliminated principally by hydroxylation to p-HPPH, a reaction catalyzed primarily by CYP2C9 and secondarily by CYP2C19 (S-mephenytoin hydroxylase). The principle of isoform specificity (drugs metabolized by the same isoform should exhibit interactions with the same inhibitors) was applied to the interactions of PHT with 17 inhibitors using two probes for CYP2C9, S-warfarin and tolbutamide. Eleven of 17 interactions (sulfaphenazole, phenylbutazone, fluconazole, azapropazone, cotrimoxazole, propoxyphene, miconazole, amiodarone, disulfiram, metronidazole, and stiripentol) could be explained by inhibition of CYP2C9. The remaining interactions (felbamate, omeprazole, cimetidine, fluoxetine, imipramine, and diazepam) were attributed to inhibition of CYP2C19. For CBZ, studies utilizing chemical inhibitors, immunoinhibition, liver bank correlations, and expressed enzymes established that CYP3A4 is the main enzyme catalyzing formation of CBZ-10, 11-epoxide. This explains the pronounced interactions of CBZ with erythromycin, troleandomycin, and other macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, josamycin, flurythromycin, and ponsinomycin). Work is in progress to explain the interactions of CBZ with other inhibitors. The literature contains no other information on isoforms involved in the metabolism of other major antiepileptic drugs.