Fatty acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells leads to malonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and cytotoxicity.. J N Thupari; M L Pinn; F P Kuhajda (2001) Biochemical and biophysical research communications display abstract
Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without toxicity to proliferating normal cells. We have previously shown that FAS inhibition causes a rapid increase in malonyl-CoA levels identifying malonyl-CoA as a potential trigger of apoptosis. In this study we further investigated the role of malonyl-CoA during FAS inhibition. We have found that: [i] inhibition of FAS with cerulenin causes carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibition and fatty acid oxidation inhibition in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells likely mediated by elevation of malonyl-CoA; [ii] cerulenin cytotoxicity is due to the nonphysiological state of increased malonyl-CoA, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and decreased fatty acid synthesis; and [iii] the cytotoxic effect of cerulenin can be mimicked by simultaneous inhibition of CPT-1, with etomoxir, and fatty acid synthesis with TOFA, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor. This study identifies CPT-1 and ACC as two new potential targets for cancer chemotherapy.
Therapeutic potential of CPT I inhibitors: cardiac gene transcription as a target.. Angel Zarain-Herzberg; Heinz Rupp (2002) Expert opinion on investigational drugs display abstract
Inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT I), the key enzyme for the transport of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) compounds into mitochondria, have been developed as agents for treating diabetes mellitus Type 2. Findings that the CPT I inhibitor, etomoxir, has effects on overloaded heart muscle, which are associated with an improved function, were unexpected and can be attributed to selective changes in the dysregulated gene expression of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Also, the first clinical trial with etomoxir in patients with heart failure showed that etomoxir improved the clinical status and several parameters of heart function. In view of the action of etomoxir on gene expression, putative molecular mechanisms involved in an increased expression of SERCA2, the Ca(2+) pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) of failing overloaded heart muscle are described. The first 225 bp of human, rabbit, rat and mouse SERCA2 promoter sequence have high identity. Various cis-regularory elements are also given for the promoter of the rat cardiac alpha-MHC gene. It is hypothesised that etomoxir increases glucose-phosphate intermediates resulting in activation of signalling pathway(s) mediated by phosphatases. Regarding the possible direct action of etomoxir on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) activation, it could upregulate the expression of various enzymes that participate in beta-oxidation, thereby modulating some effects of CPT 1 inhibition. Any development of alternative drugs requires a better understanding of the signal pathways involved in the altered gene expression. In particular, signals need to be identified which are altered in overloaded hearts and can selectively be re-activated by etomoxir.