Monoclonal antibody-directed assessment of toluene induction of rat hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes.. R S Wang; T Nakajima; S S Park; H V Gelboin; N Murayama (1993) Biochemical pharmacology display abstract
Cytochrome P450 isozymes induced in rat liver by a range of concentrations of toluene were studied with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to specific P450 isozymes and by enzyme assays. Nitrosodimethylamine demethylase activity was significantly increased in microsomes from rats exposed to more than 1000 ppm of toluene, an increase that was dose-dependent. Anti-CYP2E1 significantly inhibited the metabolism of toluene to benzyl alcohol (BA) by about 50%, in microsomes from 1000 to 4000 ppm toluene-exposed rats, at low substrate concentration (0.2 mM). With anti-CYP2B1/2, the rate of BA formation was decreased by 15-17% in microsomes from rats of 2000 and 4000 ppm toluene exposures at high substrate concentration (5.0 mM). On the other hand, anti-CYP2C11/6 inhibited the rate of formation of BA in all of the microsomes, but the extent of inhibition was progressively decreased from 55% in control to 33% in 4000 ppm exposure. Immunoblot analysis with anti-CYP2E1 and anti-CYP2B1/2 revealed stronger immunoreactive bands in microsomes from rats exposed to more than 1000 and 2000 ppm of toluene, respectively. Stronger bands were also observed in microsomes from rats of 2000-4000 ppm toluene exposures with anti-CYP3A1/2, but no immunoreactivity appeared with anti-CYP1A1/2. These results suggest that toluene induces CYP2E1, CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A1/2, but reduces CYP2C11/6, and has no effect on CYP1A1/2.
Inhibition of rat lung mixed-function oxidase activity following repeated low-level toluene inhalation: possible role of toluene metabolites.. G M Furman; D M Silverman; R A Schatz (1998) Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A display abstract
Toluene is a commonly used solvent that has been shown to alter mixed-function oxidase (MFO) activity, in an organ- and isozyme-specific pattern, following intraperitoneal administration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether similar changes occurred following repeated, low-level inhalation exposure, and to investigate the role of toluene metabolites in these alterations. Exposure to 375 ppm toluene, 6 h/d for up to 5 d, resulted in significant inhibition of the activity of pulmonary arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), cytochrome P-4502B1 (CYP2B1), and CYP4B1, but not CYP1A1. After exposure to lower toluene levels (125 ppm, 6 h/d, 3 d), the activities of lung AHH, CYP2B1, and CYP4B1 were also significantly decreased, but in a dose-related manner. MFO activity was not consistently altered in liver. Control pulmonary or liver microsomes were incubated with various concentrations (0.01-10 mM) of toluene or its metabolites and CYP2B1, CYP1A1, and/or CYP4B1 activities were subsequently determined. Benzaldehyde produced a significant dose-related inhibition in the activity of all three lung P-450s examined (IC50 10(-3) M). Toluene was found to be a more potent inhibitor of lung CYP2B1 and CYP1A1 (IC50, 10(-4) M) than benzaldehyde, but neither toluene nor benzyl alcohol was an effective inhibitor of lung CYP4B1. Toluene and its metabolites were weaker inhibitors of CYP1A1 than of CYP2B1. For CYP2B1 and CYP1A1, the order of inhibitory potency was toluene > benzaldehyde > benzyl alcohol and suggests that both the parent molecule and its metabolites may act in concert to inhibit catalytic activity of these cytochromes. The MFO inhibition seen after repeated low-level toluene inhalation exposure could result in altered metabolic profiles of other xenobiotics in an organ-specific fashion.